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Handbook of petroleum refining processes

handbook of petroleum refining processes

Additional information covers refinery utilities and miscellaneous supporting activities related to hydrocarbon processing.
Catalytic Reforming Description Catalytic reforming is an important process used to convert low-octane naphthas iron man 3 keyboard into high-octane gasoline blending components called reformates.
Because this is a closed system, exposures are expected to be minimal under normal operating conditions.
There is the possibility of exposure to ammonia, dry chemical demulsifiers, caustics, and/or acids during this operation.Thermal cracking, increase gasoline, residual, bunker fuel 1916, sweetening Reduce sulfur odor Sulfur 1930 Thermal reforming Improve octane number Residual 1932 Hydrogenation Remove sulfur Sulfur 1932 Coking Produce gasoline basestocks Coke 1933 Solvent extraction Improve lubricant viscosity index Aromatics 1935 Solvent dewaxing Improve pour point.Crude Assay A procedure for determining the general distillation and quality characteristics of crude oil.Care must be taken not to break or crush the catalyst when loading the beds, as the small fines will plug up the reformer screens.The overhead gases go to a depropanizer for use as alkylation unit feedstock.Condensed steam from the various asphalt and deasphalting processes will contain trace amounts of hydrocarbons.Some mercaptans are removed by visual studio express 2012 registration water-soluble chemicals that react with the mercaptans.Pages 47-109, preview, buy Chapter.95, the atmospheric and vacuum crude distillation units.Caustic treating with sodium (or potassium) hydroxide is used to improve odor and color by removing organic acids (naphthenic acids, phenols) and sulfur compounds (mercaptans, H2S) by a caustic wash.Normal electrical safety precautions including dry footing, high-voltage warning signs, and guarding must be taken to protect against electrocution.For example, a depropanizer is a small column designed to separate propane and lighter gases from butane and heavier components.In thermal cracking when sour crudes are processed, corrosion can occur where metal temperatures are between 450 and 900.Bottoms Tower bottoms are residue remaining in a distillation unit after the highest boiling-point body mass index calculator male metric material to be distilled has been removed.Some oil-in-water emulsions must be heated to assist in separating the oil and water.
Tail Gas The lightest hydrocarbon gas released from a refining process.
C3/C4 is separated from pentanes in the debutanizer, scrubbed to remove hydrogen sulfide, and fed to a splitter where propane and butane are separated.

The lighter, straight-chain paraffin molecules are found in gases and paraffin waxes.Spent catalyst is regenerated to get rid of coke that collects on the catalyst during the process.Gas and Air Compressors Description.The most common operating problems are listed below.It presents information on technology as normally practiced in present operations.Severe corrosion leading to equipment failure will occur should water make contact with the phosphoric acid, such as during water washing at shutdowns.An "average" crude oil contains about 84 carbon, 14 hydrogen, 1-3 sulfur, and less than 1 each of nitrogen, oxygen, metals, and salts.The potential exists in the coking process for exposure to burns when handling hot coke or in the event of a steam-line leak, or from steam, hot water, hot coke, or hot slurry that may be expelled when opening cokers.
Feedstock Stock from which material is taken to be fed (charged) into a processing unit.
Care during delivery and unloading of acid is essential.